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2017年07月23日 04:31:39来源:兰州晨报

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  • China亚洲中国Housing房产Why grumble?为何怨声载道?silver lining to the housing cloud房产疑云的一线希望JUST how bad is Chinas housing bubble? One important measure—the most important for those trying to get a foot on the property ladder—is affordability. Many believe that Chinese housing prices have soared well beyond the reach of ordinary people. There is some truth to that. But a closer look at the data reveals a more complex picture. The Economist Intelligence , our sister company, created a city-level index to track the relation between housing prices and incomes across China. Two points stand out.中国房地产泡沫有多严重?要衡量这个问题,经济可承受性是一重要指标,它是人们试图在购买住宅的重中之重。许多人相信,中国的房屋价格飙升到了一个常人难以企及的地步。这大约是正确的。不过对数据的进一步观察揭示了一个更为复杂的局面。我们的兄弟公司,经济学人智库开发了一个基于城市层面的指数,它可以追踪中国房价与收入的关系。有两点十分引人注目。First, the countrys biggest cities such as Beijing and Shanghai, with populations of more than 10m, are in a class of their own in terms of unaffordability (see chart; for full results go to our website). Homes are markedly cheaper in almost all slightly smaller cities, even though they have millions of residents. The price of a 100-square-metre house is on average 14-fold higher than annual household incomes in mega-cities. For cities with populations of less than 10m, the price to income ratio is eight. It thus makes sense for Chinas cities to tailor their housing policies to their own needs; some must focus on building more subsidised homes, while others need to attract new residents to occupy their many homes now standing empty.首先,中国诸如北京、上海此类的大城市拥有超过1千万的人口,他们处于无法负担房价的那个层次(如表所示;去我们的网站可以看到完整版)。几乎所有的较小城市中,即使拥有几百万人口,房价也要明显地便宜。在大城市里,一处100平方米的住宅价格平均超过了家庭年收入的14倍。那些人口少于1000万的城市,房价与收入的比率是8。因此,中国的城市为了迎合他们自身的需求而调整房屋政策是一件有意义的事情;一些城市必须注重经济适用房的建设,同时其他城市需要吸引新居民去消费大量空房。Second, regardless of city size, housing has become more affordable over the past four years throughout China. At the peak, in April 2010, house prices on average were nearly 12 times household incomes; that has dropped to less than nine times today. Prices are higher than in many developing countries, but they are not wildly divergent.第二,不考虑城市的规模的情况下,纵观全国,过去四年中人们更加能负担得起住宅费用。2010年4月达到最顶峰,此时住宅售价是家庭年收入近12倍;这个比率已经降到如今的不足9倍。发展中国家的房价比较高,但是中国的房价比之其他发展中国家也高不了多少。The apparent improvement in affordability does not tally with the perception of many Chinese. But the official price data used in constructing this index show that people are adjusting to high inner-city prices by buying homes that are ever farther from urban centres. That may not be especially painful: suburbs are increasingly well-connected by roads and railways.经济可承受性的明显改善与中国人的感知并不完全相符。但是,我们的指标用上了官方的数据,这些数据显示人们通过购买远离市中心的住房来适应高昂的中心城区房价。这也许不会特别痛苦,因为市郊正越来越多地与大路和铁路紧密相连。The bigger concern, especially in smaller cities, is that China suffers from an oversupply of housing. So many homes have been built that prices in such cities are now declining quickly relative to incomes. That is desirable. But a big, sudden rise in affordability could pose considerable risks to the financial system, which is heavily exposed to loans made to the property sector. So far, at least, China has yet to experience the pain of a property-market crash.另外有一个大问题,中国面临着住宅供大于求的糟糕局面,特别是在较小的城市中。这么多的住房竣工落成,而这些城市里的房价正相对于收入迅速下跌。这本让人高兴不已。但是经济可承受性短时间内大幅度的升高会对金融系统造成相当大的风险,特别是那些投放在房地产市场的贷款。到目前为止,至少还没有历经房地产崩溃的痛苦。译者:卢意 校对:伍豪 译文属译生译世 /201505/374029
  • A recent legal case in Cass County is raising questions about HIV disclosure laws in Michigan.Trevor Hoppe is a sociologist who specializes in sexuality, HIV and the law. His research studies are titled Punishing Disease and he is co-editor of The War on Sex, a forthcoming collection of essays that examines the criminal regulation of sex.Hoppe wrote a piece in the Huffington Post about an HIV-positive man in Cassopolis, MI, named Corey Rangel.It all started when police pulled Rangel over for a having a loud muffler. Rangel, on probation for drug-related charges, was cited for not wearing corrective lenses and driving without proof of insurance.;He had to report that to his probation officer,; Hoppe says, ;which he did, and his probation officer originally said basically, Not a big deal, youve been great in the drug court program, youre a model sort of participant, we dont want this to interrupt your progress.;But several hours later, Rangel got a call that would change that. He was told he needed to report to jail immediately and to bring his phone with him.When he handed over his phone, Hoppe tells us police demanded Rangel give them the password to unlock the device. He was also expelled from the drug court program upon being taken into custody.;(Rangel) didnt understand exactly what was going on, but he did not feel that he had anything to hide from the police,; Hoppe says. So he gave them the password.Later, he found out that the police had gone through his contacts list, ;making calls to people in his contacts and asking them if they had had intimate contact with Corey and whether they were aware of his HIV status.;Hoppe tells us its unclear how the police even knew about Rangels HIV status in the first place.;The court has so far been unwilling or unable to turn over the records that would explain why he was expelled from the drug court program and why now hes at risk of going to prison.;The full extend of Rangels sentence was deferred when he entered the drug court program, but Hoppe tell us he could now face the full original sentence.;The judge could effectively sentence him to many years in prison, and it seems like the only thing guiding their investigation here is Coreys HIV status,; he says.Michigan passed a law in 1989 that made it a felony for HIV-positive people to engage in sexual penetration without disclosing their status to their partner. But according to Hoppe, the police have stated that they found no evidence that Rangel has committed any criminal wrongdoing and no charges have been filed against him.;Whats at stake in Coreys case is just the notion that they investigated him for criminal wrongdoing when the only impetus for doing so was his HIV-positive status. So theyre treating him differently than they would have an HIV-negative person on probation.;Hoppe tells us that Rangel will now be entitled to an ;open and fair; hearing, in which the rationale for expelling Rangel will have to be made clear.The HIV disclosure law in Michigan was designed to protect people from contracting HIV, but Hoppes research suggests it has had a different effect.;These laws, unfortunately, reinforce the idea that we can protect people from disease using the criminal law,; he says.;But moreover they target HIV singularly. We dont have these laws for other communicable diseases, and I think that exposes the fact that really whats underlying here is that we have a disease thats especially stigmatized because of the populations it affects.;He explains that if the intent of such a law were truly to protect people from communicable disease, HIV would not be singled out in this way. But even if the law was concerned with communicable diseases more broadly, Hoppe says it would still be ;inappropriate, merely because punishment is not the best approach to controlling disease. Thats why we have public health and medical institutions. Those are the institutions we have in our society to respond to and manage epidemics and communicable diseases.;Hoppe has looked at cases like Rangels across the country. He says if you wanted to argue that these laws were protecting people, ;you would expect to find many cases that resemble the kind of boogeyman many people talk about,; referring to a person who seeks to intentionally infect other people.;You just dont see that to be true,; he says. ;The case law instead is full of people who either use protection and protected their partner from infection, or had an undetectable viral load and could not actually transmit the disease to their partner, or were in a relationship and … were scared, they didnt know how to disclose their status to their partners. Thats the typical defendant in these cases, not the kind of malicious infector that people have in mind.;Hoppe emphasizes that if were going to go after that ;boogeyman,; the laws specifically requiring the disclosure of ones HIV status are not the way to go about it. He argues that there are other laws, ;assault laws, for example,; that could adequately handle a case of malicious infection.Hoppe tells us that Michigans HIV disclosure law is fairly typical in that it does not require proof that there was a risk of transmission or that transmission even occurred. He says that actual transmission is an exceedingly rare outcome, occurring in fewer than 5% of cases in Michigan.For a standout example of how to do things differently, Hoppe looks to California, where the law requires proof of a risk of transmission.;It doesnt make sense to punish people who have put no one in harms way, and I think Californias law tried to accomplish that by also requiring to show that there was intent to harm someone,; Hoppe says. ;To my knowledge, you could count on one hand the number of felony cases in California brought under that statute, which I think reflects the real rarity of cases that are truly deserving of punishment.;For Rangel, Hoppe tells us the ultimate goal is to get him back in the drug court.;Thats where he should be,; Hoppe says. ;He should not be facing years in prison just because hes HIV-positive.;201604/435680
  • 听力参考文本(文本与听力不全一致,敬请谅解):If youve been living in Michigan for a while, chances are that you have noticed a drop in the quality of services you are getting from local government. Im not just talking about distressed cities like Detroit or Pontiac, Im talking about everywhere.Well, guess what. You think you are getting less because you are. Some of that has to do with the mentality that all taxes are bad, even when not levying them costs us more than the tax would, as is the case with the roads.But it also has to do with a flawed financing system and a now-dead insurance executive who sponsored a measure that has played havoc with government funding.I got the exact dimensions of the problem this weekend from Bill Anderson, a government and finance operations specialist for SEMCOG, otherwise known as the Southeast Michigan Council of Governments.He posted an article on SEMCOGs blog with the shocking details.Spending by all units of government has declined dramatically over the last quarter-century, and especially the last ten years, compared to the rest of the nation. We are definitely paying public servants comparatively less. We were the 13th best state for public salary levels in 1992; twenty years later, 37th.There may well have been some fat in the system, but it is clear that for a talented young administrator, government service is a lot less attractive than it was.But not all governments have suffered equally. State payrolls, for example, have increased only about half as much as the national average, but they have kept pace with inflation.However, the bottom fell out for Michigan cities, towns and villages. They saw their total payrolls cut by one-third over a single decade, from 2002 to 2012. Were not talking about inflation-adjusted dollars either. Theyve been providing less in the way of services because they havent had the money to do it. Much of this was due to the great recession.But heres the insurmountable problem they face. To e SEMCOGs Anderson: “The concern of Michigans local governments in that the states financing mechanisms … do not allow a recovery from the impact of the recession.” This is largely because of something called the Headlee Amendment, the brainchild of the late insurance executive Richard Headlee.Headlee was a flamboyant conservative who lost a race for governor in 1982. But four years earlier, he was far more successful at getting voters to adopt something called the Headlee Amendment, which puts severe limits on the property tax revenue collected by local governments.Some limits were, in fact, probably needed at the time. But the problem is this: Revenues fell like a rock when property values plunged during the Great Recession. But Headlee puts huge restraints on the ability of government to recover those revenues once values start increasing again. What goes down doesnt go all the way back up.The result has been a disaster when it comes to services we want government to provide. The prognosis, as Anderson notes, is that unless we change the state constitution: “(Our) ability to provide basic services … are likely to continue on a path of decline compared to the rest of the nation.” Good luck attracting new jobs to our state.Jack Lessenberry is Michigan Radios political analyst. Views expressed in his essays are his own and do not necessarily reflect those of Michigan Radio, its management or the station licensee, The University of Michigan.201609/467205
  • Don Blankenship, arguably Americas most powerful coal-industry executive when he was boss of Massey Energy, was sentenced to a year in jail for conspiring to violate safety rules in relation to an explosion at a mine in West Virginia in 2010 that killed 29 men.作为梅西能源公司(Massey Energy)前任CEO,唐·布兰肯西普(Don Blankenship)可以说是美国煤炭业最有权势的人。因梅西能源公司在其任职期间违反煤矿生产安全条例,导致2010年西弗吉尼亚州矿区发生29人死亡的矿难事件,唐·布兰肯西普被判入狱一年。Glencore put a dent in its billion debt pile by selling 40% of its agricultural business to Canadas largest pension fund for .5 billion. Earlier this year the Swiss commodities and trading company said it would dispose of assets worth up to billion in 2016 as part of its streamlining efforts.瑞士大宗商品贸易商嘉能可(Glencore)为削减高达260亿美元的债务,已同意将其40%的农业业务以25亿美元出售给加拿大最大的退休基金会。今年早些时候,嘉能可表示:2016年它将变卖价值50亿美元的资产,加快推动减债计划。Indias government welcomed the news that 1 billion people are now enrolled in its biometric-identity scheme, known as Aadhaar. After people register their fingerprints and retinal patterns they are issued with a card that gives access to public benefits. The government claims this is producing savings, but a proposal in Parliament to allow security agencies to tap the data has raised privacy concerns.印度政府开展的身份识别项目(名叫Aadhaar计划)已完成对10亿人的生物识别数据采集工作。人们在录入自己的指纹与视网膜信息后,便能得到一张卡,并凭此卡享受公共福利。印度政府对该计划的开展进度很满意,表示Aadhaar计划能够节省政府开。但是一份关于允许安全机构访问这些数据的议会提案却引发了人们对该计划存在的隐私问题的担忧。San Francisco became the first place in America to compel businesses to provide full pay for new parents who take leave. California provides new mothers and fathers with 55% of their pay for six weeks after the birth of a child, but firms in San Francisco will now be told to top up the remainder.旧金山成为美国首个立法要求企业提供全薪产假的城市。在加州,新生儿父母可以享有六周的带薪产假,但企业只付雇员55%的薪水。如今旧金山的各大企业必须付休产假雇员的全额工资。Where dreams dont come true迪士尼王国后继无人?Disneys succession plan to replace Robert Iger as chief executive when he eventually retires lay in tatters, after Tom Staggs, the chief operating officer and Mr Igers heir apparent, abruptly announced his departure. Mr Staggs had been considered a shoo-in for the top job, but was reportedly not happy that the board was also considering names from outside the Disney world for the position.迪士尼公司(Disney)首席运营官汤姆·斯塔格斯(Tom Staggs)突然宣布离职。此举使迪斯尼面临后继无人的难题:在罗伯特·伊格尔(Robert Iger)退休后,到底由谁来接替他担任首席执行官汤姆·斯塔格斯曾一度被认为是最有可能担此重任的人,但据报道称,董事会扩大了寻找执行官接班人的甄选范围,并不仅局限于迪斯尼公司内部,这令汤姆·斯塔格斯感到不满。Demand is high for Tesla Motors new Model 3 electric car, according to Elon Musk, the companys boss. More than 276,000 vehicles had been reserved by customers by April 2nd, just two days after its official launch. With a starting price of ,000, the Model 3 will compete directly with midsized executive cars. Deliveries will start in late 2017. But reports of problems procuring parts for Teslas older Model X prompted some worries that similar hitches could bedevil the Model 3s success, and put the brakes on Teslas soaring share price.特斯拉总裁埃隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)称,该公司旗下最新的第三代电动汽车Model 3市场需求量巨大。美国时间3月31日,特斯拉正式发布了旗下第三代电动车产品Model 3,两天之后,Model 3预定量便超过了276000辆。35000美元的起售价使这款特斯拉汽车直接与中型高档车进行市场竞争。车辆交付时间为2017年末。但是有报道称:特斯拉旗下的旧车型Model X曾发生过零件获取困难的问题,这使人们担心同样的问题会不会也发生在Model 3身上,从而阻碍特斯拉股价上涨。翻译:叶露amp;倪凌辉 校对:谢晓羽译文属译生译世201604/438728
  • Officials said on Sunday, flooding from torrential rain killed at least one person in Ellicott City, Maryland. 周日官员称,马里兰州埃利科特城暴雨引发的洪水已至少造成一人遇难。In addition, after floodwaters swept through the town’s historic downtown, at least two people were missing.此外,洪水席卷史悠久的小镇中心后,至少两人失踪。Officials said, Ellicott City was pounded by almost 6 inch of rain in two hours late on Saturday Sending the Patapsco river out of its banks.官员表示,周六晚些时候,埃利科特城两小时的降雨量达近6英寸,使帕塔普斯科河水溢出堤坝。The Howard County executive, Allan Kittleman, said the flooding in Ellicott City, about 35 miles north-east of Washington DC, was worse than that from Hurricane Agnes in 1972.霍华德县执行官艾伦称,位于华盛顿东北部约35英里的埃利科特城洪水比1972年艾格尼丝飓风更糟糕。The executive said the body of one woman was found in the Patapsco river overnight.这位执行官表示,夜间在帕塔普斯科河发现一名妇女的尸体。译文属。201608/458069
  • Its never too late for fence-mending.Thats certainly the case with the Ford family and the foundation that bears its name.Detroit News business columnist Daniel Howes has been speaking with Ford Foundation CEO Darren Walker.Ford and the Ford Foundation had been at odds for years until they fell out completely in 1976. Henry Ford II claimed that the people running the board had no understanding of capitalism and how the fruits of it funded the foundation.Instead of spending money on Detroit and southwest Michigan, as had been intended by Henry Ford and his son, Edsel, the foundation was more interested in the developing world. So much so that the foundation with .3 billion in assets dwindled its contributions to Detroit to a handful of millions by the mid-1990s.But in 2006, Michigan Attorney General Mike Cox went after the foundation and reminded it of its obligation to the area in which they were incorporated.Within a year, after a series of administrative subpoenas, the foundation upped its donations in Michigan, starting with a million commitment to what became the ;New Economy Initiative.;The Ford Foundation continued its investment on Detroit with a yearly contribution of -15 million until the ;Grand Bargain.;And now, for the first time since 1948, the trustees of the foundation will be holding a meeting in Detroit.Martha Ford, owner of the Detroit Lions, will be hosting a dinner at The Henry Ford Museum. The foundations trustees will be in Detroit to meet with Mayor Mike Duggan and Gov. Rick Snyder, among others, to learn more about the city.;I think its very emblematic of whats happening in Detroit, in general. I think you now have both political and business leadership that understands what has happened in the past but is less encumbered by the past,; says Howes.201506/379344
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